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Indications: Blisters, cracks, voids or discoloration.
Indications: Small cuts, nicks or gashes.
Indications: Parallel flat surfaces corresponding to contact areas; possible circumferential splits.
Indications: Ragged edges, generally on the low pressure side.
Indications: Cuts or marks spiraling around circumference.
Indications: Surface blisters, pits or pocks. Absorption of gas at high pressure and subsequent rapid decrease in pressure. Elastomer surface blisters and ruptures as pressure is rapidly removed.
Indications: Flat surface parallel to the direction of motion; loose particles and scrapes on surface.
Indications: Foreign material on the surface or within the cross section.
Indications: Flat-sided cross section corresponding to mating seal surfaces.
Indications: Often difficult to visually detect; may exhibit a decrease in cross-sectional size.
Indications: Small surface cracks perpendicular to the direction of stress.
Indications: May exhibit radial cracks on the highest temperature surfaces. Certain elastomers may exhibit signs of softening or a shiny surface.